Kabayan, Benguet – Abode of the Fire Mummies

Ever since my first visits to the Baguio Museum as a child, I’ve been fascinated by the fire mummies of the Ibaloi people in Kabayan, Benguet. More than two decades after, a spontaneous weekend hiking trip with fellow blogger Christine Fernandez of Adventures of a Jovial Wanderer and a college friend finally brought me face to face with these ancient wonders in their hometown of Kabayan, Benguet.

Mummies of Timbac Caves
Fire Mummies of Mt. Timbac, 500 to 1,000 years old

Ten hours worth of bus rides from Manila via Baguio City will take you to the remote town of Kabayan – the epicenter of the Ibaloi, one of the indigenous highland peoples who live in the Cordillera mountain range. Before seeing the mummies at Timbac, there are a couple of sights worth checking out in Kabayan poblacion, namely the Opdas Mass Burial Site and Kabayan National Museum. Discovered by Ibaloi hunter Banan Berong in 1971, the Opdas Mass Burial Site is the final resting place of over 200 ancient Ibaloi individuals who lived some seven centuries ago. Piles of skulls are displayed on stone shelves designed during a major renovation in 1991. Meanwhile, a small mummy from Pongasan Cave is displayed at the modest National Museum branch at Kabayan town, together with other artifacts of Luzon’s highland tribes.

Pathway to Timbac Mummy Caves

Pathway to the mummy caves of Mt. Timbac

Some of the best mummies, however, that may be viewed by visitors are a long hike from Kabayan town to Mt. Timbac – the fog-capped third highest peak of Luzon – lording over the hamlet. Aside from the mummies, the grueling climb from Kabayan town to Timbac caves entertains hikers with majestic views of the Agno river valley and a stopover at the Tinongchol Burial Rock, a three-storey high boulder where ancient Ibaloi carved out holes to inter their dead in wooden coffins.
Agno River Valley
Majestic views of Agno river valley along the hiking route

Believed to be 500 to 1,000 years old, the Kabayan mummies are entombed in oval and rectangular-shaped hardwood coffins hidden away within “caves” – actually cramp rock shelters – along steep mountain slopes. Some of the coffins have anthropomorphic and geometric designs etched on the outer surface. And traditional tattoos have been preserved on some mummies. The Ibaloi people mummified their dead by smoking them dry, hence, the nickname “fire mummies”. The World Monuments Fund website explains the mummification process: “Dying members of the tribe drank salty mixtures to begin the process. After death, their bodies were cleansed, rubbed with herbs, and heated while their mouths were filled with smoke. These steps were performed continually over a period of weeks before the deceased were placed fetal position into oval-shaped wooden coffins with decorative carvings. These practices endured until the arrival of Spanish colonialists in 1500 and the caves themselves remained untouched until the 19th century.”
Tinongchol Burial Rock
Stopover at Tinongchol Burial Rock

Unfortunately, many of the mummy caves have been vandalized or looted to be sold in the black market. To protect them, the locations of the 50 to 80 caves are known only to Ibaloi elders. According to recent reports, the mummies are also being attacked by natural agents such as water, rodent mites, insects and mold. Tribal beliefs hinder the transfer of these mummies to another location to prevent their further deterioration. Some Timbac mummies were on display at Kabayan National Museum, but “asked” to be returned to their original site, our Ibaloi hiking guide explained. While mummification is no longer practiced, present-day Ibaloi consider the mummy caves as sacred and still perform rituals in the area.

Mt. Timbac Hike
Ascending Mt. Timbac through cauliflower terraces and pine forests

HOW TO GET THERE: From Manila, take a Victory Liner bus to Baguio City (AC, 5 hours, PHP 455). A Liner buses (formerly Norton Bus) bound for Kabayan (non-AC, 5 hours, PHP 135) depart at 10:00 AM and 12:00 PM daily at the Slaughterhouse bus terminal along Magsaysay. Upon arriving in Kabayan, make you sure you register at the tourism desk of the police station, near the municipal hall. In town, there’s the Opdas Mass Burial Site (entrance fee: PHP 50) and Kabayan National Museum (PHP 20).

The Timbac Mummy Caves (entrance fee: PHP 40) are a grueling five to seven hour uphill hike along paved roads and dirt trails up Mt. Timbac – the third highest peak in Luzon. Take a guide: I recommend Ibaloi guide Vince “Bobot” Gapuz – Mobile: +63 9198524410, Email: vincegapuz@yahoo.com. Standard guide rate to Timbac mummy caves is PHP 1,000 for 1-5 pax.

To save time, we hired a jeepney (PHP 1,700) from a vegetable dealer’s house halfway along the trail to take us to the jump-off to the caves and then down to KM 55 along Halsema Highway, where we hailed a GL Bus back to Baguio City (non-AC, 2 hours, PHP 80). During the dry season, tour groups can hire a jeepney or 4X4 from Kabayan town to Timbac Caves for PHP 2,500 to 3,000. You can arrange this with the tourism assistance desk at the police station. 

The shortcut route – only a two-hour 6 km hike – to Timbac mummy caves can be done by entering from the junction at KM 55 along Halsema Highway. There’s a welcome sign directing visitors to the caves at the junction. 

For a map, altitude profile and other trail details, check out this blog entry by Lagataw.com.

WHERE TO STAY: At Kabayan poblacion, the only place to stay is the Kabayan Coop Lodge, which has cozy dorm-style rooms (with shared T/B) at only PHP 200 per head.

Opdas Mass Burial Site

Opdas Mass Burial Site at Kabayan poblacion, discovered in 1971


1. The culturally sensitive way to visit the Timbac mummies is to hire an Ibaloi guide from Kabayan town; and to register and pay the entrance fee at the official caretaker’s house near the caves.

2. Mummy caves are sacred sites for the Ibaloi people. Avoid making loud noises and horsing around at the burial sites. Ask permission from your guide before taking photographs.

3. Respect the dead and prevent further deterioration of the mummies by refraining from touching them.

11 Replies to “Kabayan, Benguet – Abode of the Fire Mummies”

  1. Ding says:

    I went to Timbac, but it is a different place…which was accesible via Atok. I want to visit this too!

  2. Hi Ding, did you hike to Mt Timbac from KM 55 along Halsema Highway? That’s also the nearest route – the “short cut” – to the mummy caves, which are only 6km away. We did the reverse longer route coming from Kabayan town to the caves, then exiting at KM 55. It was very tiring, we had to rent a jeepney halfway to make it on time to Halsema Highway, but the views were fantastic! =)

  3. So many mountains so little time! 😛 Let’s do this again.

    Gusto ko din maghike sa Sierra Madre . I wonder what’s the best and safest entry point?


  4. Hi Jovial, this is my favorite Cordillera hike by far! Yes, Kabayan deserves another visit – for more mummy caves and mountain lakes… =) Will have to do more research on Sierra Madre!

  5. Wanwan Lagos says:

    Splendid pictures of the fire mummies! Somehow you feel you don’t want to show it too much to keep it from marauding tomb raiders…God bless their souls!

  6. I was there yesterday… i was so amazed! it’s my 1st time to see a mummy… went there via km 55 as i don’t have much time… thanks to Vince, also my guide… he’s a great guide! highly recommended!

  7. @Wanwan: Thanks! Only a few caves are open to the public. Giving access to some of the mummies will hopefully make people more aware and treasure this tribal heritage =)

  8. @Pinoy: Indeed, they’re an incomparable sight! I remember shaking with excitement upon entering the caves. Seeing these mummies were a dream of mine since I was a kid. Glad to hear you enjoyed your visit to Timbac! =)

  9. bob says:

    Hi Ed! we’re scheduled to visit Timbac Cave this august from Sagada before going back to Baguio. we plan to pass KM55 at Halsema highway. we have our hired vehicle (FX taxi). can we go nearer to the cave passing Mongota (Elem School) for the vehicle to park before we start hiking? we already saw this sign for timbac at the highway last time we went to Sagada. Pls give us info as this is our itinerary. and where can this mr guide Vince be located? you can also send me info thru my email ad: rcl7573@yahoo.com.

  10. Elena Ng says:

    Hi Thanks for the informative post. Is it still possible to visit the TImbac Mummy Caves?

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